The Dead Sea contains some 45,000 million tons of salts rich in minerals - Dead Sea Minerals. The sea's unique composition of natural minerals is produced from the dissolving of the salt created in the natural evaporation process of the lake's water. The compound is refined through solar radiation which neutralizes the sodium chloride (that sinks to the bottom) and leaves the rich compound on the evaporation pool bed. The Dead Sea contains 21 essential minerals, the combination of 12 of the Dead Sea minerals does not exist in any other sea or ocean in the world. Some are known to have unique qualities, for instance giving a feeling of relaxation, nourishing the skin, activating the blood systems, and healing rheumatic diseases, and metabolic disorders. In addition, natural minerals are essential for the correct functioning of the human body and the different skin layers.

Trace Elements- the importance of Dead Sea Minerals

The minerals constitute only 4% of the body weight, but their importance is immeasurably greater, they are trace elements required in small quantities for cell renewal activities in the skin and serve as essential elements in cell functioning, principally in intercellular communication. The minerals are essential for "exchanging information" and help to transmit signals between the cells, an activity that stimulates cells to renew themselves, divide, and nourish the top skin layer with an increased water capacity.
They also participate in processes of bone building, blood production, hormone activation, neural strengthening, and far more. However, like vitamins, they are not produced by the body and therefore the body depends on an external supply of minerals from food. Minerals play a very important role in correct skin functioning. Therefore, beyond the provision of the minerals reaching it with the blood circulation, the skin absorbs minerals applied externally and uses them in every single process existing in the skin layers. A deficiency in one of the minerals is liable to disrupt skin cell activity and cause inflammation, dryness, and early aging.

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium stands at the head of the list of minerals as regards its importance to the body, since it is the main component of the skeleton and constitutes about 2% of the weight and about half the entire quantity of minerals in the body.
Calcium participates in the transfer of neural impulses between neurons, and the contraction process of the skeletal muscles and the heart muscle. Calcium also accelerates the processes of breaking down the fats and proteins in the cells and constitutes a vital factor for the blood coagulation process. A calcium deficiency is liable to cause osteoporosis and acceleration of the body's aging processes.

Calcium in the skin layer: constitutes a central factor in the cell division and renewal process, from the layer of the dermis to the epidermis, through the creation of protein kinase C enzymes (PKC). Normal cell division gives the skin flexibility and a fresh appearance.

Calcium plays an important part also in the creation of the epidermis layer's skin barrier. A proper calcium level protects the skin from dryness, particularly in cold weather or after a chemical peel. Calcium participates also in the creation of the skin's antioxidant system that combats free radicals and radiation. It protects the elastic fibers from oxidation and changes caused to DNA. Recent studies have revealed that a high calcium level in the skin protects it from early aging processes.

Zinc (Zn)

Zinc plays an important role in the immune system and the body's self-repair system. It participates in cell division, in the growing process, in healing wounds, and in keeping a correct acidity balance. It constitutes a component in scores of enzymatic reactions in the human body and as a basis in the hair-growing process.
Zinc oxide is today one of the most effective radiation screens in the cosmetics industry.

Zinc in the skin layer: contributes to cell renewal, is required for collagen production, and participates in elastin synthesis. Zinc is required for the repair of damage and duplication of the DNA. Zinc combats free radicals improve secretion of the cutaneous lipid (sebum) and helps in acne conditions. In cases of skin damage, zinc, which constitutes an important element in the immune system, participates in the recovery processes of the damaged tissue.

Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium is essential for the body's proper functioning. It works (together with various enzymes) in 300 different biochemical breakdown and building processes carried out continuously in the body. Magnesium helps in building the bones, producing protein, making vitamin D available to the body, and giving vital energy to the cells.

Magnesium in the skin layer: Magnesium is absorbed easily through the skin layer. At the Dead Sea, the concentration of magnesium salts is ten times higher than in any other seawater. The Dead Sea's abundance of magnesium rapidly heals and soothes the skin, and prevents redness, itching, and irritations which are the skin's reaction to allergies. Magnesium penetrates through the living skin layers and assists in the metabolic process, the circulation of oxygen through the blood, and intercellular neural transmission. It strengthens the cell membranes and helps in the repair of damage to the cell nucleus. Magnesium helps the skin combat aggressions by giving energy which activates the cells and the immune system.

Potassium (K)

Potassium maintains the existence of a balance of fluids in the cell and is essential for daily existence. Potassium helps muscular activity and participates in the process of sending neural information through the neurons. It releases energy from proteins, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism for the use of the cells and muscles. Potassium, unlike other minerals, is stored in the actual cells and works from there.

Potassium in the skin layer: maintains a suitable level of acidity. It balances the transfer of fluids in the cells and maintains a high level of moisture in the skin. It introduces nutrients into the cell membranes and participates in protein synthesis. It helps to neutralize free radicals and to calm acne outbreaks.

Sulfur (S)

There is sulfur in all the body's cells and particularly in the keratin cells which are rich in protein and build the skin layers, hair, and nails. Sulfur is part of the chemical structure of the amino acids that build the cells, and is essential in the process of absorbing some of the vitamins in the body. Sulfur helps to kill bacteria and cleanses the blood, it helps the liver to clean the body of toxins such as lead, aluminum, and mercury.

Sulfur in the skin layer: Sulfur earned the title "the beauty mineral" for its contribution to the cell renewal process. It helps the cells to rise to the top skin layer and allows forming of a new layer of cells. Sulfur, as an antiseptic substance that kills bacteria and fungus, tells the skin to combat diseases such as dandruff, eczema, psoriasis, and various inflammations. In addition, sulfur must be present for the skin to create collagen, which contributes to the smoothness and softness of the skin.

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is an essential basis for almost all known life forms. Inorganic phosphorus (phosphate ions) serves as part of the nuclear molecules (DNA and RNA), part of the bone structure, and the cell membranes (phospholipids). Phosphorus is the main negative ion in the intracellular fluid and plays a part in maintaining the balance of acidity and electrolytes in the body. Living cells use phosphorus to produce energy (ATP).

Phosphorus in the skin layer: Phosphorus participates in protein production. Therefore it is essential for the creation of new cells. This mineral is essential for all proper functioning of the skin system starting from the creation of energy for the cells, the metabolic process, and principally the capacity for self-repair of cells damaged because of external aggressions.

Sodium (Na)

Sodium helps to maintain balanced acidity (pH) in the body and prevents fluid loss. In addition, it participates in neural activity and assists in the contracting of the muscles. At the Dead Sea Minerals, the concentration of sodium is relatively lower than other sea salts.

Sodium in the skin layer: maintains the osmotic balance of fluids outside the cells, and improves the metabolism in the cells. It allows the penetration of water into the skin and increases flexibility. An essential mineral for healing dry skin conditions.

Lithium (L)

Lithium salts serve as mood stabilizers and antidepressants because lithium influences the brain cells and the nervous system.

Lithium in the skin layer:

It relieves skin diseases such as psoriasis, helps to prolong cell life, and maintains the nervous system's health in the short and the long term.

Boron (B)

 A mineral that belongs to the trace element group (minerals required in minute quantities), is essential for the creation of different plants. The body requires boron in a minimum quantity and it helps to maintain and strengthen the skeletal system in particular at advanced ages. It prevents calcium and magnesium loss, participates in maintaining the health of the cell membrane, and calms premenstrual manifestations.

Boron in the skin layer: Boron helps to channel the hormone functions in the skin, particularly estrogen and testosterone. A boron deficiency weakens the cell membranes.

Bromine (Br)

Bromine is one of the Dead Sea Minerals. Its concentration at the Dead Sea is one of the highest in the world (75% more than the average in normal seawater). In its natural form bromine comes from the water of the Dead Sea (Bromide) and helps to calm the central nervous system.

Bromine in the skin layer: Bromine helps to relieve stress in the skin and indirectly soothes sensitivities.

Strontium (Sr)

The human body relates to strontium as to calcium because of the similarity in the chemical properties. According to recent studies, it has become clear that strontium increases bone density. In medicine, strontium compounds serve as some of the drugs used against tetanus and skin irritations.

Strontium in the skin layer: It has effective properties for the prevention of itchiness, and reduces signs of skin irritations and inflammation.

Manganese (Mn)

Manganese is essential for life in minute quantities. It is one of the components of the oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase enzymes, and the lectin protein and plays a key role in photosynthesis and oxygen production.

Manganese in the skin layer: It participates in the natural process of neutralization of oxidants in the skin (antioxidants) and protects the cells from injury. It participates in the production of amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates that serve as building blocks in forming a healthy skin layer.